A series of 18 flume runs were conducted in a 6-m long, 0.5-m wide recirculating flume with a bed gradient of 0.8% to determine the influence of obstruction shape on the formation and characteristics of forced pools. Six different-shaped obstructions were added to the flume with the maximum width of the obstruction held constant at 20 cm, which equaled a 40% constriction of flow. The obstruction shapes used included a square, a rectangle, a right triangle with the hypotenuse-facing upstream, a right triangle with the hypotenuse-facing downstream, a combination of a square and triangle with the hypotenuse-facing upstream, and a rectangle and semi-circle shape. Three flume runs were conducted with each obstruction shape. A profile of the flume bed was taken after each experiment and a grid measurement of bed elevations for the last run were conducted to create topographic maps of the flume bed to compare pool-riffle morphologies. ANOVA results indicate pool depth, pool location, and the distance between the pool center and the riffle crest all vary with the obstruction shape. Obstructions with a more blunt upstream face created deeper pools, more total scour and longer pool-riffle sequence lengths than pools formed by obstructions with a more gradual narrowing of flow. The increased volume of scour associated with obstructions that rapidly narrow flow also creates larger volume riffles that cover a greater extent of the channel bed.
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Thompson, D.M., and C.R. McCarrick, 2010. A flume experiment on the effect of constriction shape on the formation of forced pools. Hydrology and Earth Systems Sciences, 14: 1321-1330.
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