This research was designed to examine whether conformity to masculine norms and conformity to feminine norms predict minority stress, anti-effeminacy attitudes, and internalized homophobia among gay men. The participants (N= 239) completed the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory-46, Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory-45, Negative Attitudes Toward Effeminacy Scale, Daily Heterosexist Experiences Questionnaire, and Revised Internalized Homophobia Scale. Analyses indicated that conformity to feminine norms predicts minority stress, that conformity to masculine norms does not predict minority stress, that conformity to masculine norms predicts anti-effeminacy, that conformity to feminine norms does not predict anti-effeminacy, that conformity to masculine norms predicts internalized homophobia, that conformity to feminine norms does not predict internalized homophobia, that anti-effeminacy does not predict minority stress, and that internalized homophobia does not predict minority stress. Components of conformity to masculine and feminine norms that predict minority stress are explored. The results suggest that gay men who conform to feminine norms may face increased minority stress and that gay men who conform to masculine norms may face increased internalized homophobia and anti-effeminacy. These results can inform efforts to reduce minority stress among gay men. Further investigation with a more racially and ethnically diverse sample is suggested.
Murgo, Michael, "Minority Stress and Anti-Effeminacy Attitudes among Gay Men: The Predictive Value of Conformity to Masculine and Feminine Gender Norms" (2015). Psychology Honors Papers. 58.
The views expressed in this paper are solely those of the author.