Document Type

Book Chapter

Publication Date



This is a preprint draft of a chapter that has been accepted for publication by Oxford University Press in the book Russian-Arab Worlds:A Documentary History edited by Eileen Kane, Masha Kirasirova, and Margaret Litvin, published 28 June 2023 and available for sale at the following web address:

A companion website with links to original documentation is available at

Available for download on Saturday, June 28, 2025



The views expressed in this paper are solely those of the author.